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These are some instruments I have created in collaboration with several colleagues. All scales are free to use; there is no need to ask me for permission. If you have questions regarding any of these scales let me know.

Short Generalized Opinion Leadership Scale (S-GOLS)

Opinion leadership describes an individual's tendency to informally influence others' attitudes and overt behaviors. In contrast to contemporary views of opinion leadership as a highly domain-specific trait, generalized opinion leadership represents a multi-faceted personality trait that characterizes exceptionally influential individuals independent of a specific subject area.

S-GOLS scale including norms

Please cite as:

  • Gnambs, T., & Batinic, B. (2011). Evaluation of measurement precision with Rasch-type models: The case of the short Generalized Opinion leadership Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 53-58. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.08.021

Further reading:

  • Gnambs, T., & Batinic, B. (2012). A personality-competence model of opinion leadership. Psychology & Marketing, 29, 606-621. doi:10.1002/mar.20547
  • Gnambs, T., & Batinic, B. (2011). Convergent and discriminant validity of opinion leadership: Multitrait-multimethod analysis across measurement occasion and informant type. Journal of Individual Differences, 32, 94-102. doi:10.1027/1614-0001/a000040


Short form of the Need for Affect Questionnaire (NAQ-S)

The need for affect describes individual differences in the tendency to approach or avoid emotion-inducing situations and activities. Similar to the need for cognition, which taps the motivation to engage in effortful cognitive activity, the need for affect reflects a stable intrinsic motivation.

NAQ-S scale

Please cite as:

  • Appel, M., Gnambs, T., & Maio, G. (2012). A short measure of the need for affect. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 418-426. doi:10.1080/00223891.2012.666921

Further reading:

  • Maio, G. R., & Esses, V. M. (2001). The need for affect: Individual differences in the motivation to approach and avoid emotions. Journal of Personality, 69, 583–614. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.694156
Timo Gnambs
Foto © LIfBi

Dr. Timo Gnambs

Leibniz Institute for Educational Trajectories
Wilhelmsplatz 3
96047 Bamberg
Germany / Europe

Email: timo@gn[REMOVE THIS PART]